3D Digital (now own rights to RealScan 3D... which was
previously owned by Intel, and before that Lockheed Martin). The
Model 100 portable scanner has a USB interface for easy interfacing
but no color texture. The Model 200 has color texture.
3D Scanner has two different products. ModelMaker is a hand-held
line scanner that fits on the end of an articulated arm (such as
Faro). It comes in several different sensor configurations. The user
can choose where to spend more time gathering dense data. The weight
of the head and the rigidness of the articulated arm can make
scanning a bit tiring. Replica/Reversa is a complete Computer
Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machine.
3Shape 3D scanners for hearing aid and footwear applications
DataPixel has sensors for CMMs, robot based inspection, and
manufacturing in-line inspection.
Axila G-scan is an integrated articulated arm and laser line
Canadian National Research Council
C-Map Systems LazrLyne projects a bright red vertical stripe
into the video camera field of view. This allows an operator to
measure areas, distances, and angles on the screen. The device is
typically used for remote controlled crawlers, undersea ROV's,
borescopes, and video microscopes.
Cyberware pioneered laser and video-based scanning technology.
Their head and body scanners have been heavily used in the movie
industry. The have scanners to address a full range of applications
and they build custom scanners for special applications. The
scanners color texture inaddition to geometry data.
DCS incubator project uses projection of multiple laser lines to
create 3D profiles.
Diff Scan handheld 3D scanner uses a laser, camera, and
diffraction to obtain range information
Digibotics has several different size models that use a single
laser dot to scan an entire object. The systems automatically scan
an entire object in an intelligent fashion. Because of the order it
scans the object, the point cloud is very easy to convert to a NURB
model usings tools like Surfacer. The scanning is some what slow,
Hamar laser alignment systems
Hymarc Hyscan 45C laser digitizer is designed to fit to any
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), Computer Numerically Controlled
(CNC) Machine, or other translation device.
Industrial Technology Research Institute has a 4-axis scanner, a
portable 3D scanner, and a body scanner.
4DI system projects multiple laser lines to scan an object. It
has two video cameras to calculate the 3D points and one camera to
keep track of the multiple lines.
INO has a line of high speed 3D laser profiling sensors
high speed 3D machine vision sensor calculates range information
directly in the camera (10,000 profiles / sec). Combined with the
Ranger software, it makes creating 3D profiling applications easy.
Kreon3D has two different models. The laser line is projected
from the center of the sensor. Two cameras are used on either side
of the line projector. This allows data capture even if one of the
cameras is obscured.
Laser Design makes both portable and CMM based scanners for
large and small applications.
Technologies Inc. has single point, multi-point, single-line and
multi-line laser sensors
offers two different models, one for long distances (2.5 - 25 Meters),
and one for shorter distances (0.8 - 10 meters).
Metris has several CMM non-contact scanners.
Metron Systems MSG2 3D Scanning System is for reverse
engineering, rapid prototyping, first article inspection, quality
and process control or simply scanning services
Minolta Vivid (USA)
(Japan) has three models (Vivid 330, 700, 900) to provide
different accuracies and working volumes. These systems operate like
a conventional camera and are portable, fast, and reliable. The
systems product color texture and geometry data.
Nagoya Institute of Technology Cubicscope
Nextec has the Wiz laser point probe that can be mounted on a
CMM or they have the Hawk integrated scanning system
New Features Measurement sells the M2D line of laser line
OGIScanner laser line scanner for measuring rough diamonds for
use in diamond planning and cutting.
Origin Technology captures a two-dimensional digital profile of
Perceptron provides laser line scanner and software for
integrating with articulated arms
Polhemus has come out with a new model of the FastScan handheld
laser scanner. The FastScan Cobra is a single camera laser line
scanner. It is much lighter and easier to handle than the original
FastScan. The user "paints" the object of interest. The point cloud
is displayed on the screen as the scan is being done. It uses a
built-in magnetic tracker to obtain the position and orientation of
the scanner. This puts the scanned points in the same coordinate
system. The overlapping scans are processed into a single surface
model. Optional software provides automatic hole filling and
generates water tight meshes. The list price is around $20K and the
accuracy is around 0.5mm. This product is not suited for working
around metal because of the tracker. The scanner and FastRBF
software are developed by
Applied Research Associates NZ Ltd. and
Roland Model LPX-250 Laser Scanner is a $10K laser dot scanner
that has rotation and linear stages. The operating volume is 10"
diameter, 16" height. The scanning resolution can be as small as
0.008". The unit is very nicely package, but large complex parts can
take quite a bit of time to scan.
Scantech produces 3D laser scanners and CAD/CAM for efficient
and fast copy milling. They have a portable scanner and stationary
3D laser scanners for mounting on any CNC-controlled milling machine
or CNC-turning lathe.
Perceptron can be mounted on an articulated arm
Shapegrabber has tabletop, portable, and gantry scanning
Steinbichler Comet T-scan hand-held laser scanner for
3D-digitizing of freeform surfaces
Scantech portable or CNC mounted scanner for stone, wood, and
Surphaser 3D Laser Scanner ($30k) scans 200,000/sec with an
operating volume of 6' x 6' x 6' with 0.05mm RMS accuracy
Wolf & Beck Optical Scanning sensors for CMMs
Ltd LARA scanners and Light Form Modeller Software
Structured Light Scanners
Optimet point probe uses
Coherix uses a tunable
laser with multiple wavelengths and phase shifting to make
measurements in a 12x12x16" working volume. The measurement time is
2-3 minutes. Works well on flat reflective surfaces. Applications
have been wheel hubs, brake rotors, valve bodies, and polished glass
in the automotive arena. Systems are high-end ($200K)
Cortona VRML plugin can be used to view VRML files in your web
CosmoPlayer VRML plugin can be used to view VRML files in your
Delcam provides a free tranlator that converts Unigraphics,
SolidWorks, Pro/E 2000i, Parasolid and CATIA files to IGES.
Deskproto Converts STL files into machining paths for CNC
Easy3DScan is a package for automating the scan process using
Minolta VIVID scanners and a turntable
FarField Technology provides advanced techniques for modeling
scattered 2D and 3D data.
Imageware Surfacer allows you to manipulate point clouds and
convert them into useful objects such as points, lines, planes
Innovmetric Polyworks accepts scan data from most scanner
manufacturers and aligns them into one model. It is very good at
handling the extremely large datasets. It processes both the points
and the texture. The point clouds and models can be exported or
compared against CAD models.
MatchGraph integrates 3d scan data processing technology in one
package. It handles the creation and modification of triangulated
meshes, NURB curves, and surfaces with inspection and analysis
MayaMetrix Real-time inspection and tool building help Link
Digital CAD Models to Manufacturing
provides data preparation, registration, comparison, and reporting
software for dimensional inspection.
Okino Polytrans does a great job of converting 3D models between
Paraform surface reconstruction software
Raindrop Geomagic has a product that converts point clouds into
polygonal and NURB models. The Qualify product aligns point cloud
data to CAD models and inspects it.
Rhino3D Nurb modeling for Windows.
SpatialAnalyzer SpatialAnalyzer can simultaneously acquire data
from any combination of metrology instruments - Theodolites, Total
Station Theodolites, Laser Trackers, Laser Scanner, Coordinate
Professional creates a 3D model from a series of object images.
Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is an open source, freely available
software system for 3D computer graphics, image processing, and
Metricvision technology is based on Frequency Modulated Coherent
Laser Radar, which gives it great precision (repeatability is in the
sub-10 micron range at over 10m). Since it is a focused system is
has good spatial resolution ( absolute precision in the range of 100
microns at 10 meters). The technology is very good at capturing
reflective surfaces and can be used with mirrors to reduce
Time-of-flight Laser Scanners
3rdTech DeltaSphere 3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer
Cyrax 2500 scanner is suited for capturing large "as-built"
structures and turning them into CAD representations. They have been
used in applications from retrofitting power plants to digitizing
movie sets. The accuracy is +/-6mm at 1.5m to 50m 1 sigma. The
operating volume is approximately 20,000M^3. Approximate system
pricing is $150K.
Quantapoint measures 125,000 points per second and covers a 70
degree by 360 degree field of view
Riegl Laser Measurement Systems for 3D imaging of buildings and
Automated Precision sells the Laser Tracker II system which is a
lightweight, precise, compact and portable CMM tool designed for
SMX) produces a portable CMM system that precisely measure
objects in the 0-100' range.
Leica Geosystems sells a range of industrial measurements
systems including laser trackers.
claims to have invented the first six-axis portable CMM in 1986. The
ORBITAL is their eight-axis arm.
Three families of digitizers (sterling, silver, and gold). Working
volumes from 4-12', accuracies of 0.001" to 0.007" 2 sigma.
Immersion Microscribe Several different models with varying
working volumes (50" - 66" sphere) and accuracy (0.009 - 0.015").
Roland makes several small volume piezo scanners. The low price
makes them great for scanning coins, jewelry, and other small parts.
Six axis articulation, 6 - 12' diameter measuring, accuracy to +/-
ZettMess Portable 6 Axes Measuring System
3rdTech HiBall-3100 Based on the UNC Wide-Area Tracking Research
ArcSecond sells what they call an indoor GPS system. The system
consist of 2-4 transmitters that are similar to rotating
construction laser levels. Receivers are connected to wireless PDAs
and display x,y,z location. The interesting part about this product
is that you can many independent receivers. The systems are fairly
accurate over a large working volume.
Image Guided Technologies
Krypton is a precalibrated mobile metrology system. There are no
mechanical arms and the setup is fast and straight forward.
Northern Digital makes the Polaris and Optotrak system. They
track active and passive markers. ND focuses on the medical areas,
and is common in image guided surgery.
PhoeniX Technologies Real-Time 3D Motion Capture for research,
biomechanics, VR, and gaming.
Polhemus developed the technology and sells the FasTrak and
Northern Digital has a new Aurora system that uses small sensors.
It has a measurement volume approximately 500mm x 500mm x500mm. The
1 sigma accuracies are 1-3mm and 1-2 degrees orientation. This
product will help ND in the image guide surgery arena where optical
systems can have their views blocked.
CamSys ShadowBox has 16" diameter, 16" high cylindrical working
volume. Two models with different accuracy. Scan times range from 15
- 120 seconds.
Immersion LightScribe is a $10K scanner that combines profiling,
color texture collection, and handheld laser line "painting" to fill-in
concave model parts.
Solarius Development LaserScan is a 3D profilometer for laser
measurement and analysis of surfaces
Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMMs)
3D Solutions 3D modeling and photogrammetry software
creates 3D textured models from photographs
is from the University of Melbourne. Professor Clive Fraser has
written many papers about using photogrammety on industrial
is from AICON 3D Systems. The software has a heritage from the older
Rollei DPA-WIN software. Coded targets and automatic camera
calibration greatly improve your productivity.
Brunson Instrument Company sells Invar components and
accessories useful for creating photogrammetry scale bars.
Cognitens 3D vision measurement systems is targeted at the
automotive and the aerospace applications.
Inca2 camera and V-Stars are top-of-the-line cameras and
software. They are geared towards automatically measuring coded,
circular retro-reflective targets, and scale bars. This is a true
metric camera, not just a professional grade digital camera.
Hubbs Machine and Manufacturing produce photogrammetry
targets and tooling.
Imetric produces very high resolution cameras (6 and 28
Megapixel). Their software can read coded targets and can integrate
their structured light sensor.
Kodak sells several professional digital cameras that are
good for medium to high accuracy photogrammetry projects. The
cameras are available in monochrome versions which are typically
better for photogrammetry. The current model is the
DCS 760M, past models have been the
DCS 420M and
Leica Geosystems also sells the V-Stars videogrammetry system
produced by GSI.
is a Photoshop plugin to correct lens distortion
PhotoModeler is a
great package for calibrating cameras, making measurements from
photos, and creating 3D models from photos. It has a lot of
functionality for the price (<$1000).
Renoir for 3D reconstruction from photos
works with projected targets
(3DMD) uses random light patterns with up to 144 synchronized
digital cameras to geometry and texture of human subjects
TriTop is a photogrammetry package from Capture3D. It is
usually sold and integrated with the ATOS structured light sensor
that they sell. It allows the point cloud scans to be automatically
placed using coded and uncoded retroreflective targets.
Vexcel FotoG Automatic
edge detection for targeting helps this software create as-built
models of plants.
W.N.B.C. in L.A.
produces retroreflective targets for use in photogrammetry
Total Stations / Theodolites
Milling Machines and 3D Printers
Systems has SLA stereolighography systems and solid imaging
Roland CNC Milling Machines
has two different model 3D printers. The Z406 ($67.5K) uses a
plaster-based powder. The Z400 ($49K) uses a starch-based powder.
The loose powder acts as a supporting structure which can be removed
MultiCam makes CNC routers, laser cutters and plasma cutters
Measurement Service Companies
Computer Graphics and
Computer Vision : Three-Dimensional Data from Images by Reinhard
Klette, Karsten Schluns, Andreas Koschan This is a great
practical book for people that want to learn about creating 3D data
Computer Vision: A Modern Approach by David Forsyth, Jean Ponce
Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision by Richard Hartley, Andrew
Introductory Techniques for 3-D Computer Vision by Emanuele Trucco,
Alessandro Verri Good classroom book for introduction to
The Geometry of Multiple Images: The Laws That Govern the Formation
of Multiple Images of a Scene and Some of Their Applications by
Olivier Faugeras, Quang-Tuan Luong, T. Papadopoulo
3D Structures from Images - Smile 2000
Computer Vision by Linda G. Shapiro, George C. Stockman, George
Computer Vision and Fuzzy Neural Systems (With CD-ROM) by Arun D.
Active Contours : The Application of Techniques from Graphics,
Vision, Control Theory and Statistics to Visual Tracking of Shapes
in Motion by Andrew Blake, Michael Isard
Handbook of Computer Vision Algorithms in Image Algebra by Gerhard X.
Ritter, Joseph N. Wilson
Calibration and 3D Reconstruction for Multicamera Marker Based
Motion Measurement by J.C. Sabel
Computer Vision and Image Processing: A Practical Approach Using
CVIPTools (BK/CD-ROM) by Scott E. Umbaugh
The Image Processing Handbook, Third Edition by John C. Russ
Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision by James R.
Practical Algorithms for Image Analysis: Descriptions, Examples, and
Code by Michael Seul, Lawrence O'Gorman, Michael J. Sammon
Feature Extraction in Computer Vision and Image Processing by Mark S.
Nixon, Alberto Aguado
Contemporary Optical Image Processing With Matlab by Ting-Chung Poon,
Partha P. Banerjee
3-D Image Processing Algorithms by I. Pitas, Nikos Nikolaidis
Practical Algorithms for Image Analysis: Descriptions, Examples, and
Code by Michael Seul, Lawrence O'Gorman, Michael J. Sammon
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